Vermont State Flag
Vermont State Seal
is a relatively small U.S. state located in New England. Vermont
was its own country for 14 years from 1777 until 1791. The state ranks
43rd in land area (9,250 square miles), and its population (608,827)
ranks as the second smallest of the fifty states. As the only New England
state not to have a coastline along the Atlantic Ocean, Vermont
is noted mainly for the Green Mountains in the west and Lake Champlain
in the northwest. It borders Massachusetts
to the south, New Hampshire
to the east, New York to
the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec
to the north.
by Native American tribes (Iroquois, Algonquian and Abenaki), the territory
that is now Vermont was
claimed by France but became a British possession after France's defeat
in the French and Indian War. For many years, rightful control of the
area was disputed by the surrounding colonies. Settlers who held land
titles granted by the Province
of New Hampshire, through their Green Mountain Boys militia, eventually
prevailed. Vermont became
the 14th state to join the United
States, following its 14-year period of independence during and
after the Revolutionary War as the Vermont Republic.
Famous for its scenery,
dairy products and maple syrup, Vermont
has long been known for its liberal politics and staunchly independent
political thinking. The state capital is Montpelier,
while the largest city is Burlington.
- % water
24,923 km² (43th)
- Total (2000)
25.41 /km² (30th)
71°28'W to 73°26'W
Green Mountain State
is located in the New England region in the eastern United
States and comprises 9615 square miles (24,902 km²), making
it the 45th largest state. Of this, land comprises 9249 square miles
(23,955 km²) and water comprises 366 square miles (948 km²),
making it the 43rd largest in land area and the 47th in water area.
The west bank of
the Connecticut River marks the eastern border of the state with New
Hampshire (the river itself is part of New
Hampshire). Lake Champlain, the major lake in Vermont,
is the sixth-largest body of fresh water in the United
States and separates Vermont
from New York and Canada
in the northwest portion of the state. The state's greatest length,
from north to south, is 159 miles. Its greatest width, from east to
west, is 89 miles (the narrowest width is at 37 miles). The state's
geographic center is Washington,
three miles east of Roxbury.
has 14 counties. Four counties border Quebec
in Canada to the north,
and two border Massachusetts
in the south. In the west is New
York and in the east is New
Hampshire, each bordered by five counties each. Only two of Vermont's
counties—Lamoille and Washington—are entirely surrounded
by Vermont territory.
The Green Mountains, (In
French: Verts monts) so named because their relatively low altitude
allows for little timberline, form a north-south spine running the most
of the length of the state, slightly west of its center. In the southwest
portion of the state are the Taconic Mountains; the White Mountains
are in the northeast. In the northwest off Lake Champlain is the fertile
Champlain Valley. In the south of the valley is Bomoseen Lake.
mountains do have timberlines: Mount Mansfield, the highest mountain
in the state and Killington are two examples. About 77 percent of the
state is covered by forest, the rest in meadow, uplands, lakes, ponds
and swampy wetlands.
is known for its brief mud season in spring followed by a cool summer
and a colorful autumn, and particularly for its cold winters. The northern
part of the state, including the rural northeastern section (dubbed
the "Northeast Kingdom") is known for exceptionally cold winters,
often averaging more than 10° F (-12° C) colder than the southern
areas of the state. Annual snowfall averages between 60 to 100 inches
depending on elevation, giving Vermont
some of New England's best cross-country skiing areas.
In the autumn, Vermont's
hills experience an explosion of red, orange and gold foliage caused
by the sugar maple. That this famous display occurs so abundantly in
Vermont is not due so much
to the presence of a particular variant of the tree; it rather results
from a number of soil and climate conditions unique to the area.
The highest recorded
temperature was 105° F (41° C), at Vermon
on July 4, 1911; the lowest recorded temperature was -50° F (-46°
C), at Bloomfield
on December 30, 1933.
Little is known
of the pre-Columbian history of Vermont.
The western part of the state was originally home to a small population
of Algonquian-speaking tribes, including the Mohican and Abenaki peoples.
Between 8500 to 7000 BC, glacial activity created the Champlain Sea,
and Native Americans inhabited and hunted in Vermont.
From 7000 to 1000 BC was the Archaic Period. During the era Native Americans
migrated year-round. From 1000 BC to 1600 AD was the Woodland Period,
when villages and trade networks were established, and ceramic and bow
and arrow technology was developed. Sometime between 1500 and 1600,
the Iroquois drove many of the smaller native tribes out of Vermont,
later using the area as a hunting ground and warring with the remaining
Abenaki. The population in 1500 is estimated to be around 10,000 people.
The first European
to see Vermont is thought
to be Jacques Cartier, in 1535. On July 30, 1609, French explorer Samuel
de Champlain claimed the area of what is now Lake Champlain, giving
to the mountains the appellation of les Verts Monts (the Green Mountains).
France claimed Vermont
as part of New France, and erected Fort Sainte Anne on Isle La Motte
in 1666 as part of their fortification of Lake Champlain. This was the
first European settlement in Vermont
and the site of the first Roman Catholic mass.
During the later
half of the 17th century, non-French settlers began to explore Vermont
and its surrounding area. In 1690, a group of Dutch-British settlers
under Captain Jacobus de Warm established the De Warm Stockade at Chimney
Point (eight miles west of Addison).
This settlement and trading post was directly across the river from
New York (Pointe à la Chevelure).
In 1731, the French
arrived. Here they constructed a small temporary wooden stockade (Fort
de Pieux) on what was Chimney
Point until work on Fort St. Frédéric began in 1734.
The fort, when completed, gave the French control of the New France/Vermont
border region in the Lake Champlain Valley and was the only permanent
fort in the area until the building of Fort Carillon more than 20 years
later. The government encouraged French colonization, leading to the
development of small French settlements in the valley. The British attempted
to take the Fort St. Frédéric four times between 1755
and 1758; in 1759 a combined force of 12,000 British regular and provincial
troops under Sir Jeffrey Amherst captured the fort. The French were
driven out of the area and retreated to other forts along the Richelieu
River. One year later a group of Mohawks burnt the settlement to the
ground, leaving only chimneys and giving the area its name.
The first permanent
British settlement was established in 1724 with the construction of
Fort Dummer in Vermont's far southeast under the command of Lieutenant
Timothy Dwight. This fort protected the nearby settlements of Dummerston
in the surrounding area. These settlements were made by the Province
of Massachusetts Bay to protect its settlers on the western border along
the Connecticut River. The second British settlement was the 1761 founding
in the southwest.
During the French
and Indian War, some Vermont settlers, including Ethan Allen, joined
the colonial militia assisting the British in attacks on the French.
Fort Carillon on the New York-Vermont
border, a French fort constructed in 1755, was the site of two British
offensives under Lord Amherst's command: the unsuccessful British attack
in 1758 and the retaking of the following year with no major resistance
(most of the garrison had been removed to defend Quebec,
and the western forts). The British renamed the fort Fort Ticonderoga
(which became the site of two later battles during the American Revolutionary
War). Following France's loss in the French and Indian War, the 1763
Treaty of Paris gave control of the land to the British.
The end of the war
brought new settlers to Vermont.
A fort at Crown Point had been built, and the Crown Point Military Road
stretched from the east to the west of the Vermont
wilderness from Springfield
Point, making traveling from the neighboring British colonies easier
than ever before. Three colonies laid claim to the area. The Province
of Massachusetts Bay claimed the land on the basis of the 1629 charter
of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The Province of New
York claimed Vermont
based on land granted to the Duke of York (later King James II) in 1764.
The Province of New Hampshire
also claimed Vermont based
upon a decree of George II in 1740. In 1741, George II ruled that Massachusetts's
claims in Vermont and New
Hampshire were invalid and fixed Massachusetts's
northern boundary at its present location. This still left New
Hampshire and New York
with conflicting claims to the land.
situation resulted in the New Hampshire Grants, a series of 135 land
grants made between 1749 and 1764 by New
Hampshire's colonial governor, Benning Wentworth. The grants sparked
a dispute with the New York
governor, who began granting charters of his own for New Yorker settlement
in Vermont. In 1770, Ethan
Allen—along with his brothers Ira and Levi, as well as Seth Warner—recruited
an informal militia, the Green Mountain Boys, to protect the interests
of the original New Hampshire
settlers against the new migrants from New
York. When a New York judge arrived in Westminster
with New York settlers in March 1775, violence broke out as angry citizens
took over the courthouse and called a sheriff's posse. This resulted
in the deaths of Daniel Houghton and William French in the "Westminster
On January 18, 1777,
representatives of the New Hampshire Grants convened in Westminster
and declared their land an independent republic. For the first six months
of the republic's existence, the republic was called New Connecticut.
On June 2, a second
convention of 72 delegates met at Westminster,
known as the "Westminster Convention." At this meeting, the
delegates adopted the name "Vermont" on the suggestion of
Dr. Thomas Young of Philadelphia,
a supporter of the delegates who wrote a letter advising them on how
to achieve statehood. The delegates set the time for a meeting one month
later. On July 4, the Constitution of Vermont was drafted at the Windsor
Tavern owned by Elijah West during a violent thunderstorm, and was adopted
by the delegates on July 8 after four days of debate. This was among
the first written constitutions in North America and was indisputably
the first to abolish the institution of slavery, provide for universal
manhood suffrage and require suppost of public schools. The Windsor
tavern has been preserved as the Old Constitution House, administered
as a state historic site.
The Battle of Bennington,
fought on August 16, 1777, was a seminal event in the history of the
state of Vermont. The nascent
republican government, created after years of political turmoil, faced
challanges from New York,
New Hampshire, Great Britain
and the new United States,
none of which recognized its sovereignty. The republic's ability to
defeat a powerful military invader gave it a legitimacy among its scattered
frontier society that would sustain it through fourteen years of fragile
independence before it finally achieved statehood as the 14th state
in the union in 1791.
During the summer
of 1777 the invading British army of General Burgoyne slashed southward
from Canada to the Hudson
River, captured the strategic stonghold of Fort Ticonderoga, and drove
the continentel army into a desparate southward retreat. Raiding parties
of British soldiers and native warriors freely attacked, pillaged and
burned the frontier communities of the Lake Champlain valley and threatened
all settlements to the south. The Vermont frontier collapsed in the
face of the British invasion. The New
Hampshire legislature, fearing an invasion to the east, mobilized
the state's militia under the command of General John Stark.
received intellegence that large stores of horses, food and munitions
were kept at Bennington,
then the largest community in the Grants. He dispatched 2,600 men, nearly
a third of his army, to sieze the colonial storehouse there, unaware
that General Stark's New Hampshire troops were then traversing the Green
Mountains to join up at Bennington
with the Vermont continentel regiments commanded by Colonel Seth Warner,
together with the local Vermont
and western Massachusetts militia. The combined American forces, under
Stark's command, attacked the British column at Hoosik,
New York, just across the border from Bennington.
The American troops were defending their homes, families and property.
General Stark reportedly challanged his men to fight to the death, telling
them that: "There are your enemies. They are ours, or this night
Molly Stark sleeps a widow!" In a desperate, all-day battle fought
in intense summer heat, the army of yankee farmers killed or captured
virtually the entire British detachment. General Burgoyne never recovered
from this loss and eventually surrendered the remainder of his 6000-man
force at Saratoga,
New York on October 17.
The Battles of Bennington
and Saratoga are recognized as the turning point in the Revolutionary
War because they were the first major defeat of a British army and convinced
the French that the Americans were worthy of military aid. Stark became
widely known as the "Hero of Bennington" and the anniversary
of the battle is still celebrated in Vermont
as a legal holiday known as "Bennington Battle Day." Under
the portico of the Vermont Statehouse, next to an heroic granite statue
of Ethan Allen, there is a brass cannon that was captured from the British
troops at the Battle of Bennington.
continued to govern itself as a sovereign entity based in the eastern
town of Windsor
for 14 years. Thomas Chittenden, who came to Vermont
from Connecticut in 1774,
acted as President of Vermont from 1778 to 1789 and from 1790 to 1791.
In 1791, Vermont joined
the Union as the 14th member–the first state to enter the union
after the original 13 colonies, and a counterweight to Kentucky,
which was admitted to the Union shortly afterward.
had a unicameral legislature until 1836.
land action of the American Civil War took place in Vermont
on October 19, 1864. In this incident, one of the most unusual in American
history, Bennett H. Young led Confederate forces. Young had been captured
in John Hunt Morgan's 1863 raid in Ohio,
but escaped to Canada in
the fall of that year. Morgan went to the south, where he proposed Canada-based
raids on the Union as a means of building the Confederate treasury and
forcing the Union army to protect their northern border as a diversion.
Young was commissioned as a Lieutenant and returned to Canada,
where he recruited other escaped rebels to participate in the October
19, 1864 raid on St.
Albans, Vermont, a quiet town 15 miles from the Canadian border.
Young and two others
checked into a local hotel on October 10, saying that they had come
from St. John's in Canada
for a "sporting vacation." Every day, two or three more young
men arrived. By October 19, there was 21 men. Just before 3:00 p.m.,
the group simultaneously staged an armed robbery of the three banks
in the town. They announced that they were Confederate soldiers and
stole a total of $208,000. As the banks were being robbed, eight or
nine of the Confederates held the townspeople prisoner on the village
green as their horses were stolen. One townsperson was killed and another
wounded. Young ordered his troops to burn the town down, but the four-ounce
bottles of Greek fire they had brought failed to work.
also sent over 30,000 men into the service of the Union Army, of which
some one out of three did not return, a higher proportion of men sent
and lost than any other state. The most famous Vermont unit was the
hard-fighting First Vermont Brigade. This unit remains the hardest-fighting
brigade in the history of the United States military.
The first election in which
women were allowed to vote was on December 18, 1880, when women were
granted limited suffrage and were allowed to vote in school board elections.
occurred in early November 1927. During this incident, 85 people died,
84 of them in Vermont. Another
flood occurred in 1973, when the flood caused the death of two people
and the loss of millions of dollars in property damage.
Law and Government
known for their political independence and liberal views. The Vermont
government maintains a proactive stance with regards to the environment,
social services and prevention of urbanization. For example, facing
severe pressures from out-of-state real estate developers, the state
passed the Land Use and Development Law (Act 250) in 1970. The law,
which was the first like it in the nation, created nine District Environmental
Commissions consisting of private citizens who have the power to approve/disapprove
land development and subdivision plans that would have a significant
impact on the state's environment and many small communities. Another
case involves the recent controversy over the adoption of civil unions,
an institution which grants same-sex couples nearly all the rights and
privileges of marriage. In Baker v. Vermont (1999) the Vermont Supreme
Court ruled that, under the Constitution of Vermont, the state must
either allow same-sex marriage or provide a separate but equal status
for them. The state legislature chose the second option by creating
the institution of civil union; the bill was passed by the legislature
and signed into law by Governor Howard Dean.
is the home state of the only two current (2005) members of the United
States Congress who do not associate themselves with a political party:
Representative Bernie Sanders and Senator Jim Jeffords.
Attempts by out-of-state
candidates (so called "flatlanders") to win a seat in Vermont
have often been thwarted by locals. In 1998, a 79-year-old local man
named Fred Tuttle won national attention by defeating a Massachusetts
multimillionaire in the Republican Primary for Senate. With a campaign
budget of $201, Tuttle garnered 55 percent of the primary vote. He was
heavily defeated by Democratic incumbent Patrick Leahy in November.
Vermont politics from the party's founding in 1854 until the 1980s.
Vermont was one of two states
(with Maine) to vote
for Republican Alf Landon over President Franklin Roosevelt in 1936.
In the early 1960s many progressive Vermont Republicans and newcomers
to the state helped bolster the State's then-small Democratic Party.
Until 1992, Vermont had
only supported a Democrat for president once since the Civil War—in
Lyndon Johnson's 1964 landslide victory. In 1992, it supported Democrat
Bill Clinton for president and has voted for Democrats in every presidential
election since then. Vermont
gave John Kerry his fourth largest margin of victory in 2004. He won
the state's popular vote by 20 percentage points over incumbent George
W. Bush, taking almost 59 percent of the vote. Essex County in the state's
northeastern section was the only county to vote for Bush.
The Vermont Progressive Party
is a small, left-wing political party created in the early 1980s and
has held a handful of seats in the Vermont legislature for two decades
and is affiliated with Vermont's lone congressman, Bernie Sanders; it
has had official recognition as a political party by the state government
is the birthplace of former presidents Calvin Coolidge and Chester A.
Arthur. The age of consent in Vermont
is 16. Vermont abolished
the death penalty in 1964. The last state execution was carried out
A major political
issue for some years has been taxation and education funding. The town
is currently trying to leave Vermont
and join New Hampshire due
to what the locals say is an unfair tax burden.
Provision is made
for the following governing institutions under the Constitution of the
State of Vermont:
elect a state Governor and Lieutenant Governor every two years (as opposed
to every four years, which is the most common term length for a governor
of a U.S. state). The current governor of Vermont is Jim Douglas, who
assumed office in 2003.
Unlike other states,
Vermont does not have a
term limit for the governor.
The Vermont's state
legislature is the Vermont General Assembly, a bicameral body composed
of the Vermont House of Representatives (the lower house) and the Vermont
Senate (the upper house). The Senate is composed of 30 state senators,
while the House of Representatives has 150 members. Like the governor,
members of the General Assembly serve two-year terms.
The Vermont Supreme
Court is the state supreme court, made up of five justices who served
six year terms. Superior courts in the state are made up of eight judges
serving a term of six years. Appointments to the state supreme court,
superior court, and district courts are made by the governor and approved
by the General Assembly. Judges on lower courts are elected on a partisan
In the U.S. Senate,
(2005) Vermont is represented
by Senator Patrick Leahy, a Democrat, and Senator James Jeffords, an
independent. Jeffords was a former Republican but left the party in
2001 as a result of political disagreements and now caucuses with the
Democrats. Unusually, like its neighbor New
Hampshire, Vermont tends
to elect more independents than other states; in the U.S. House of Representatives,
Vermont's single at-large congressional district is represented by Bernard
Sanders, an independent representative and socialist who served as the
mayor of Burlington.
has many festivals, including the Vermont Maple Festival, the Enosburg
Falls Dairy Festival, the Marlboro Music Festival, and the Mozart Festival.
The Vermont Symphony Orchestra is supported by the state and performs
throughout the area. The Poetry Society of Vermont publishes a literary
magazine called The Green Mountain Troubadore which encourages submissions
from members of various ages. Every year they hold various contests
- one being for high school age young people. The Brattleboro-based
Vermont Theatre Company presents an annual summer Shakespeare festival.
also hosts the summertime Strolling of the Heifers parade which celebrates
Vermont's unique dairy culture. In the Northeast Kingdom, The Bread
and Puppet Theatre holds weekly shows in Glover
in a natural outdoor amphitheater.
No major professional
sports teams are based in Vermont.
The largest professional franchise is the Vermont Expos, a single-A
minor league baseball team based in Burlington.
remains the only state without a McDonalds present in its state capitol.
The U.S. Census Bureau reports Vermont's 2000
population as 608,827, and estimates its 2004 population as 621,394.
Race and Sex
0.4% Native American
1.2% Mixed race
50 states and the District
of Columbia, Vermont
2nd in its
proportion of Whites
41st in its proportion of Asians
49th in its proportion of Hispanics
48th in its proportion of Blacks
29th in its proportion of Native Americans
39th in its proportion of people of mixed race
28th in its proportion of males
24th in its proportion of females
largest ancestry groups are:
of British ancestry (especially English) live throughout most
of Vermont. The northern
part of the state is inhabited principally by people of French
(including French-Canadian and Quebecois) ancestry.
of the neighboring states, Vermont's largest religious affiliation
in the colonial period was Congregationalism. In 1776, 63 percent
of affiliated church members in Vermont
were Congregationalists. At the time, however, most settlers were
not church members, because much of the land was wilderness. Only
9 percent of people belonged to a church at the time. The Congregational
United Church of Christ remains the largest Protestant denomination
and Vermont has the
largest percentage of this denomination of any state.
three-fourths of Vermont
residents identify themselves as Christians. The largest single
religious body in the state is the Roman Catholic Church. A Catholic
Church survey in 1990 reported that 25% of Vermonters were members
of the Catholic Church, although more than that self-identify
current religious distribution is:
Roman Catholic – 39%
Protestant – 34%
Congregational/United Church of Christ – 7%
Methodist – 7%
Episcopal – 5%
Baptist – 3%
Other Protestant – 12%
Other Christian – 1%
Jewish – 1%
Other Religions – 1%
Non-Religious – 24%
one-third of Vermonters are self-identified Protestants. The largest
Protestant denomination in the state is the United Church of Christ,
and the second largest is the United Methodist Church, followed
by Episcopalians, and Baptists.
Smith, Jr. and Brigham Young—the first two leaders of the
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints—were both born
in Vermont, Mormons
have never made up a large percentage of Vermont's population.
Unitarian Universalism claim around 1 percent of the state's population.
The 2001 Shengold Jewish Encyclopedia reported that the state
has 5,000 Jews—300 in Burlington
and 500 each in Montpelier-Barre
four Reform and two Conservative congregations.
such as Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism have very few adherents.
Over the past two
centuries, Vermont has seen
both population explosions and population busts. First settled by farmers,
loggers and hunters, Vermont
lost much of its population as farmers moved West into the Great Plains
in search of abundant, easily tilled land. Logging similarly fell off
as over-cutting and the exploitation of other forests made Vermont's
forest less attractive. Although these population shifts devastated
Vermont's economy, the early loss of population had the beneficial effect
of allowing Vermont's land and forest to recover from the excesses of
human beings. The accompanying lack of industry has allowed Vermont
to avoid many of the ill-effects of 20th century industrial busts, effects
that still plague neighboring states. Today, much of Vermont's forest
consists of second-growth.
Of the remaining industries,
dairy farming is the primary source of agricultural income.
A unique part of
Vermont's economy is the manufacture and sale of novelty goods and foods
for cottage industries and niche markets. Examples of these are such
exports as Cabot Cheese, the Vermont Teddy Bear Company, Burton Snowboards,
King Arthur Flour, and Ben and Jerry's Ice Cream (headquartered in South
plays an increasingly large role in Vermont's economy. With this form
of alternative insurance, large corporations or industry associations
form standalone insurance companies to insure their own risks, thereby
substantially reducing their insurance premiums and gaining a significant
measure of control over types of risks to be covered. There are also
significant tax advantages to be gained from the formation and operation
of captive insurance companies. According to the Insurance Information
Institute, Vermont in 2004
was the world's third-largest domicile for captive insurance companies,
following Bermuda and the Cayman Islands.
camps, furniture-making and skiing also make up a large component of
Vermont's income. Trout fishing, lake fishing and even ice fishing draw
the outdoorsman to the state as does the excellent hiking on the Long
Trail. Several noteworthy horse shows are annual events. Golf courses
are springing up with spas to service the weary client. One major fashion
outlet mall isn't really a mall but the old town of Manchester
In the winter, the
mountains in Vermont have
enough snow to make skiing a viable industry.
The towns of Rutland
and Barre are
the traditional centers of marble quarrying and marble shaping in the
USA. For many years Vermont
was also the headquarters of the smallest union in the USA, the Stonecutters
Association, of about 500 members.
In recent years,
Vermont has been deluged
with plans to build condos and houses on what was relatively inexpensive,
untouched land. Vermont's government has responded with a series of
laws controlling development and with some pioneering initiatives to
prevent the loss of Vermont's dairy industry.
In 2001, Vermont
produced 1,040,000 liters of maple syrup, about a quarter of the U.S.
Important Cities and Towns
Wealth of locations
by per capita income:
The public school
system in Vermont is regulated
by the Vermont State Board of Education, which consists of nine voting
members and one non-voting member, appointed by the governor with the
advice and consent of the State Senate. One voting member is a high
school student; the non-voting member is another Vermont high school
student who is a junior member and will move into the voting student
member position the following year.
Colleges and Universities
for Cartoon Studies
of St. Joseph
for International Training
is one of twelve states that have no death penalty statute. After 1930
there were four executions; the last was in 1954. Capital punishment
was effectively abolished in practice in 1964, with the statutes being
completely removed in 1987. Current state law, however, allows children
as young as ten years to be tried as adults, the lowest age limit currently
specified by any of the 50 states.
Crime per capita is generally
prison system is administered by Vermont Department of Corrections.
There are nine prisons in Vermont:
Chittenden Regional Correctional Facility
Dale Women's Facility
Marble Valley Regional Correctional Facility
Northern State Correctional Facility
Northwest State Correctional Facility
Southeast State Correctional Facility
Southern State Correctional Facility
St. Johnsbury Regional Correctional Facility
State designations and symbols
The state song and state
symbols are designated by act of the state legislature and confirmed
by the governor.
song is "These Green Mountains," written by composed by Diane
Martin and arranged by Rita Buglass Gluck. This song was officially
designated as the state song on May 22, 2000, when Governor Howard Dean
signed No. 99 of the Acts of 2000 into law. This song replaced "Hail
to Vermont!," which was written by Josephine Hovey-Perry and made
the state song in 1938.
state bird is the hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus). This was adopted
as No. 1 of the Acts of 1941, effective June 1, 1941. The bird was only
designated after debate in the legislature; though the hermit thrush
is found in all of 14 counties and has a distinctive sweet call, it
left the state during the winter for its yearly southward migration.
Many legislators actually favored the blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata)
or the crow. The red clover (Trifolium pratense) was designated as the
state flower by No. 159 of the Acts of 1894, effective February 1, 1895.
The red clover is often seen in the countryside of Vermont
but was originally naturalized from Europe.
has two official state fish, both adopted by Joint Resolution R-91 of
the Acts of 1978 and effective on May 3, 1978: the cold-water fish,
brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and the warm-water fish, the walleye
pike (Stizosedion vitreum vitreum).
The state tree is
the sugar maple (Acer saccharum), adopted by the Acts of 1949, effective
March 10, 1949. The sugar maple is the source of maple syrup, Vermont's
most famous export. (The sugar maple is also the state tree of Wisconsin).
The state mammal is the Morgan horse, designated as such by No. 42 of
the acts of 1961, effective March 23, 1961. The Morgan horse is a horse
breed originally from Vermont.
The state insect
is the honeybee (Apis mellifera), designated by No. 124 of the Acts
of 1978, effective July 1, 1978. The honeybee is also the state insect
of ten other states—Arkansas, Kansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Maine,
Missouri, New Jersey, Utah, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. The state
amphibian, adopted by No. 126 of the Acts of 1997, is the Northern Leopard
Frog (Rana pipiens).
has also designated an official state mineral (talc), pie (apple pie),
soil ("Tunbridge Soil Series"), beverage (milk), and gem (grossular
garnet), and fossil (the beluga skeleton at the University of Vermont's
Perkins Geology Museum.)
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